The Johns Hopkins ACG® System Bibliography provides links to more than 900 papers and reports from across the globe detailing various studies utilizing the ACG System in a variety of locations, populations, and innovative applications.

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Uptake and survival effects of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer: A population-based study

Abstract Introduction Despite growing evidence supporting the safety of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the treatment of lung cancer, its uptake is still variable and […]

Mental Health Services Provision in Primary Care and Emergency Department Settings: Analysis of Blended Fee-for-Service and Blended Capitation Models in Ontario, Canada

Abstract Treating mental illnesses in primary care is increasingly emphasized to improve access to mental health services. Although family physicians (FPs) or general practitioners are […]

Correlates of non-adherence to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening among screen-eligible women: a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada

Abstract Purpose Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are cancers that can be detected early through screening. Despite organized cancer screening programs in Ontario, Canada participation […]

Identification of Prenatal Opioid Exposure Within Health Administrative Databases

Abstract BACKGROUND: Health administrative data offer a vital source of data on maternal prenatal opioid exposure (POE). The impact of different methods to estimate POE, especially […]

Assessing the geographical distribution of comorbidity among commercially insured individuals in South Africa

Abstract Background Comorbidities are strong predictors of current and future healthcare needs and costs; however, comorbidities are not evenly distributed geographically. A growing need has […]

Declining Use of Red Blood Cell Transfusions for Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Analysis

Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer surgery patients often develop perioperative anemia commonly treated with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Given the potential associated risks, evidence published […]

Peri‐complication diagnosis of hepatitis C infection: Risk factors and trends over time

Abstract Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common and treatable cause of cirrhosis and its complications, yet many chronically infected individuals remain […]

The measurement of multimorbidity.

Abstract Overview: The presence of multiple concurrent medical conditions (also known as multimorbidity) is now a common phenomenon, hence the importance of its measurement. Objective: […]

Assessing guideline-concordant care for patients with multimorbidity treated in a care management setting

Abstract   Background Disease-specific guidelines are not aligned with multimorbidity care complexity. Meeting all guideline-recommended care for multimorbid patients has been estimated but not demonstrated […]

Who is discharged to intermediate care facilities? An Italian study in the population of Udine

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess complexity of patients discharged from hospital to intermediate care facility in an Italian setting. Multiple anonymous […]

A Revised Classification Algorithm for Assessing Emergency Department Visit Severity of Populations

ABSTRACT Objectives: Analyses of emergency department (ED) use require visit classification algorithms based on administrative data. Our objectives were to present an expanded and revised version […]

Objective Estimates of Direct-Medical Costs Among Persons Aged 3 to 38 Years With and Without Research-Defined Autism Spectrum Disorder Ascertained During Childhood: A Population-Based Birth-Cohort Study

Abstract Objectives Accurate estimates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)–associated medical costs are essential for predicting future care needs, allocating resources, identifying best practices, and modeling […]

Predicting the Cost of Health Care Services : A Comparison of Case-mix Systems and Comorbidity Indices That Use Administrative Data

Abstract Background: Case-mix systems and comorbidity indices aggregate clinical information about patients over time and are used to characterize need for health care services. These […]

Multimorbidity as a predictor of health service utilization in primary care: a registry-based study of the Catalan population

Abstract Background Multimorbidity is highly relevant for both service commissioning and clinical decision-making. Optimization of variables assessing multimorbidity in order to enhance chronic care management […]

Incidence, Treatment, and Implications of Kidney Stones During Pregnancy: A Matched Population-Based Cohort Study

Abstract Purpose To determine the incidence of kidney stones in pregnancy, the risk of adverse birth outcomes, and treatment trends. Methods We performed a population-based […]

In-Hospital Outcomes of Patients on Maintenance Dialysis With Frailty: 10-year Results From the US National Inpatient Sample Database

Abstract Objective The in-hospital mortality rate of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is 6-8 times greater than that of the general population. A large […]

Temporal condition pattern mining in large, sparse electronic health record data: A case study in characterizing pediatric asthma

Abstract Objective This study introduces a temporal condition pattern mining methodology to address the sparse nature of coded condition concept utilization in electronic health record […]

Predicting the Cost of Health Care Services

Abstract   Background: Case-mix systems and comorbidity indices aggregate clinical information about patients over time and are used to characterize need for health care services. […]

Does early palliative identification improve the use of palliative care services?

Abstract Purpose To evaluate whether the early identification of patients who may benefit from palliative care impacts on the use of palliative, community and acute-based […]

Serious infections in patients with myasthenia gravis: population‐based cohort study

Abstract Background and purpose To characterize the frequency and risk of serious infections in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) relative to age/sex/area‐matched comparators. Methods This […]

Factors associated with emergency department presentation after total joint arthroplasty: a population-based retrospective cohort study

Abstract Background Unplanned visits to the emergency department after total joint arthroplasty are far more common than unplanned readmissions. Our objectives were to characterize the […]

Variation in care of patients with elderly-onset inflammatory bowel disease in Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study

Abstract Background Variation in health care, when not based on patient preference, may result in poorer care. We determined whether variation in health services utilization, […]

Diagnostic accuracy of administrative codes for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in clinic patients with cystic kidney disease

Abstract Background The ability to identify patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and distinguish them from patients with similar conditions in healthcare administrative […]

Patient-reported symptoms following diagnosis in esophagus cancer patients treated with palliative intent

Summary The majority of patients with esophagus cancer have advanced-stage disease without curative options. For these patients, treatment is focused on improving symptoms and quality […]

The Impact of Team-Based Primary Care on Guideline-Recommended Disease Screening

Abstract Introduction Family Medicine Groups, implemented in Quebec in 2002, are interprofessional primary care teams designed to improve timely access to high-quality primary care. This […]

Preoperative frailty predicts adverse short‐term postoperative outcomes in patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy

Abstract Background To investigate the effect of frailty on short‐term postoperative outcomes and total hospital charges (THCs) in patients with non‐metastatic upper urinary tract carcinoma, […]

A systematic review of case-mix models for home health care payment: Making sense of variation

Abstract Background Case-mix based payment of health care services offers potential to contain expenditure growth and simultaneously support needs-based care provision. However, limited evidence exists […]

Overall mortality and causes of death in newly admitted nursing home residents

Abstract Background In spite of a rapidly ageing population, there is a lack of population-based data on mortality among nursing home residents in Southern Europe. […]

A cross-sectional study of prolonged disengagement from clinic among people with HCV receiving care in a low threshold, multidisciplinary clinic

Abstract Background Disengagement from care can affect treatment outcomes of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assessed the extent and determinants of disengagement among […]

Multimorbidity patterns in patients with heart failure: an observational Spanish study based on electronic health records

Abstract Objectives To characterise the comorbidities of heart failure (HF) in men and women, to explore their clustering into multimorbidity patterns, and to measure the […]

The direct healthcare costs attributable to West Nile virus illness in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cohort study using laboratory and health administrative data

Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first detected in the Western Hemisphere in 1999 and spread across North America over the […]

Measuring multimorbidity beyond counting diseases: systematic review of community and population studies and guide to index choice

Abstract Objectives To identify and summarise existing indices for measuring multimorbidity beyond disease counts, to establish which indices include mental health comorbidities or outcomes, and […]

Association of Follow-Up Care With Long-Term Death and Subsequent Hospitalization in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Who Receive Emergency Care in the Province of Ontario

Abstract Background Currently, 11% of patients seen in the emergency department for atrial fibrillation die within 1 year of the visit. Our objective was to […]

Association of Care Management Intensity With Healthcare Utilization in an All-Condition Care Management Program

ABSTRACT Objectives: To identify care needs among Medicaid and Medicare patients in an all-condition care management program involving case managers (CMs) and community health workers (CHWs), […]

MS risk in immigrants in the McDonald era: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS) in immigrants and to compare MS risk in immigrants and long-term residents in Ontario, Canada. […]

Association Between Dysphagia and Inpatient Outcomes Across Frailty Level Among Patients ≥ 50 Years of Age

Abstract Frail patients may have heightened risk of dysphagia, a potentially modifiable health factor. Our aim is to examine whether the relationship between dysphagia and […]

Association of Patient, Prescriber, and Region With the Initiation of First Prescription of Biologic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Among Older Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Identical Health Insurance Coverage

Abstract Importance Prescribing the first biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an important decision for patients, their physicians, and payers, with considerable costs and […]

Symptom burden among head and neck cancer patients in the first year after diagnosis: Association with primary treatment modality

Abstract Purpose Head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment affects quality of life, with significant symptom burden. The main objectives of this study were […]

The impact of psychiatric and medical comorbidity on the risk of mortality: a population-based analysis

Abstract Background As life expectancy increases, more people have chronic psychiatric and medical health disorders. Comorbidity may increase the risk of premature mortality, an important […]

Trends in cardiovascular care and event rates among First Nations and other people with diabetes in Ontario, Canada, 1996–2015

Abstract Background Rates of cardiovascular disease among people with diabetes have declined over the last 20–30 years. To determine whether First Nations people have experienced […]

Changes in primary care provider utilization by phase of care for women diagnosed with breast cancer: a CanIMPACT longitudinal cohort study

Abstract Background Primary care providers (PCPs) have always played an important role in cancer diagnosis. There is increasing awareness of the importance of their role […]

Emergency department use among young adult Medicare beneficiaries with autism and intellectual disabilities

Abstract Background Individuals on the autism spectrum are at greater risk for a variety of co-occurring psychiatric and medical conditions, which could result in greater […]

Impact of comprehensive care on health care use among a cohort of marginalized people living with hepatitis C in Toronto, Canada

Abstract Background The majority of new hepatitis C (HCV) cases occur among people who inject drugs. In recent years, multidisciplinary models of HCV treatment have […]

Colonoscopy resource availability and its association with the colorectal cancer diagnostic interval: A population-based cross-sectional study

Abstract BACKGROUND Colonoscopy is a key resource used to diagnose colorectal cancer (CRC). This study evaluated the relationship between colonoscopy availability and the length of […]

Colonoscopy resource availability and its association with the colorectal cancer diagnostic interval: A population‐based cross‐sectional study

Abstract Background Colonoscopy is a key resource used to diagnose colorectal cancer (CRC). This study evaluated the relationship between colonoscopy availability and the length of […]

Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Outcomes Among Practicing Physicians vs the General Population in Ontario, Canada

Abstract IMPORTANCE Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in most developed countries, little is known about current physicians’ cardiovascular health and outcomes. […]

Incremental healthcare utilisation and costs among new senior high-cost users in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective matched cohort study

Abstract Objectives To describe healthcare use and spending before and on becoming a new (incident) senior high-cost user (HCU) compared with senior non-HCUs; to estimate […]

Patient frailty predicts worse perioperative outcomes and higher cost after radical cystectomy

Abstract Background Relatively few studies investigated the importance of frailty in radical cystectomy (RC) patients. We tested the ability of frailty, using the Johns Hopkins […]

Is Frailty Associated With Worse Outcomes After Head and Neck Surgery? A Narrative Review

Abstract Objective Frailty has emerged as an important determinant of many health outcomes across various surgical specialties. We examined the published literature reporting on frailty […]

Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Acute Care Use After Initiation of Systemic Therapy for Cancer

Abstract Importance  Emergency department visits and hospitalizations after starting systemic therapy for cancer are frequent, undesirable, and costly. A score to quantify the risk of […]

Sex-Based Disparities in the Hourly Earnings of Surgeons in the Fee-for-Service System in Ontario, Canada

Abstract Importance  Sex-based income disparities are well documented in medicine and most pronounced in surgery. These disparities are commonly attributed to differences in hours worked. […]

One-Year Mortality After Emergency Department Visit for Nonfatal Opioid Poisoning: A Population-Based Analysis

Abstract Study objective We aim to characterize the incidence and risk factors for opioid-related and all-cause mortality in the year after an emergency department (ED) […]

Economic Analysis of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Compared with Chemotherapy in Resected Pancreas Cancer

Abstract Background Population-based survival and costs of pancreas adenocarcinoma patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy following pancreaticoduodenectomy are poorly understood. Methods This retrospective cohort study used […]

Production of physician services under fee‐for‐service and blended fee‐for‐service: Evidence from Ontario, Canada

Abstract We examine family physicians’ responses to financial incentives for medical services in Ontario, Canada. We use administrative data covering 2003–2008, a period during which […]

Impact of care provider network characteristics on patient outcomes: Usage of social network analysis and a multi-scale community detection

Abstract Objective We assess healthcare provider collaboration and the impact on patient outcomes using social network analysis, a multi-scale community detection algorithm, and generalized estimating […]

Determinants of vaccination uptake, and influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing deaths and hospital admissions in the elderly population; Treviso, Italy, 2014/2015-2016/2017 seasons

ABSTRACT Seasonal influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among the elderly population. Determinants of vaccination uptake and its impact on health […]

Cardiovascular Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Women: A Historical Cohort Study

Abstract Objective Background: Evidence on sex differences in the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular outcomes is limited and controversial. We conducted a […]

Incidence of Hospitalizations and Emergency Department Visits for Herpes Zoster in Immunocompromised and Immunocompetent Adults in Ontario, Canada, 2002-2016

Abstract BACKGROUND Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ) infection and related complications. We aimed to assess the incidence of hospital-attended HZ […]

Days spent at home in the last 6 months of life: a quality indicator of end of life care in patients with hematologic malignancies

Abstract Despite advances in the management of hematologic malignancies, a significant proportion of patients die of their disease. We used administrative databases in Ontario, Canada […]

Understanding those overdue for cancer screening by five years or more: A retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

Abstract Populations that are more than just slightly overdue for breast, cervical and colorectal screening should likely be targeted for policy and practice interventions. We […]

Health of Spanish centenarians: a cross-sectional study based on electronic health records

Abstract Background With the number of centenarians increasing exponentially in Spain, a deeper knowledge of their socio-demographic, clinical, and healthcare use characteristics is important to […]

Prediction of 30-day pediatric unplanned hospitalizations using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups risk adjustment system

Abstract Background The Johns Hopkins ACG System is widely used to predict patient healthcare service use and costs. Most applications have focused on adult populations. […]

Population segmentation based on healthcare needs: a systematic review

Abstract Background Healthcare needs-based population segmentation is a promising approach for enabling the development and evaluation of integrated healthcare service models that meet healthcare needs. […]

Prediction Accuracy With Electronic Medical Records Versus Administrative Claims

Abstract Objective:  The objective of this study was to evaluate the incremental predictive power of electronic medical record (EMR) data, relative to the information available […]

Predicting Short-Term Outcomes After Radical Cystectomy Based on Frailty

Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of frailty on adverse perioperative outcomes in patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Material and Methods We […]

Effectiveness and Safety of Inhaled Corticosteroids in Older Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and/or Asthma. A Population Study

Abstract Rationale Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are established medications for the management of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two common chronic airway diseases. […]

Symptom trajectories and predictors of severe symptoms in pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the end-of-life: a population based analysis of 2,538 patients

Abstract Background We evaluated symptom trajectories and predictors of reporting severe symptoms in the last 6 months of life among non-resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) decedents. […]

Patient-Reported Symptoms Improve Performance of Risk Prediction Models for Emergency Department Visits Among Patients With Cancer: A Population-Wide Study in Ontario Using Administrative Data

Abstract Context Prior work shows measurements of symptom severity using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) which are associated with emergency department (ED) visits in […]

Epidemiology of Interpersonal Trauma among Women and Men Psychiatric Inpatients: A Population-Based Study

Abstract Objective Small clinical samples suggest that psychiatric inpatients report a lifetime history of interpersonal trauma. Since past experiences of trauma may complicate prognosis and […]

Frailty, Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators, and Mortality: a Systematic Review

Abstract   Background Evidence for the benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in older adults is mixed; age alone […]

Impact of Predialysis Psychosocial Conditions on Kidney Transplant Recipient Survival: Evidence Using Propensity Score Matching

Abstract Background: An increased number of end-stage renal disease patients suffer psychosocial conditions and may experience delayed access to transplantation due to listing restrictions. However, […]

A comparison of population segmentation methods

Abstract This paper presents the first comparison of descriptive segmentation methods for population health management. The aim of descriptive segmentation is to identify heterogeneous segments […]

Interaction between neighborhood walkability and traffic-related air pollution on hypertension and diabetes: The CANHEART cohort

Abstract Background Living in unwalkable neighborhoods has been associated with heightened risk for diabetes and hypertension. However, highly walkable environments may have higher concentrations of […]

When the Doctor-Patient Divide Is a Chasm

Abstract For an important group of patients, the divide between themselves and their healthcare team is a chasm. These patients are variously identified in different […]

Prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities among first generation adult newcomers, and the health and health service use of this group: A retrospective cohort study

Abstract Background Attention to research and planning are increasingly being devoted to newcomer health, but the needs of newcomers with disabilities remain largely unknown. This […]

Is Post-discharge Rehabilitation Timing Associated with 90-Day Readmission in Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty?

Abstract Background Physical therapy (PT) is an accepted standard of care after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and essential to maximizing joint functionality and minimizing complications […]

Understanding the impact of a multispecialty electronic consultation service on family physician referral rates to specialists: a randomized controlled trial using health administrative data

Abstract Background Electronic consultation (eConsult) services are secure online applications facilitating provider-to-provider communication. They have been found to improve access to specialist care. However, little […]

A Multi-sourced Data Analytics Approach to Measuring and Assessing Biopsychosocial Complexity: The Vancouver Community Analytics Tool Complexity Module (VCAT-CM)

Abstract Operationalization of the fundamental building blocks of primary care (i.e. empanelment, team-based care and population management) within the context of Community Health Centers requires […]

Profiling hospital performance on the basis of readmission after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in Ontario, Canada

Abstract Background Readmission rates are a widely accepted quality indicator. Our objective was to develop models for calculating case‐mixed adjusted readmission rates after transcatheter aortic […]

Comparing Survey-Based Frailty Assessment to Medicare Claims in Predicting Health Outcomes and Utilization in Medicare Beneficiaries

Abstract   Objectives To assess two models for the prediction of health utilization and functions using standardized in-person assessments of frailty and administrative claims-based geriatric […]

The Incremental Health Care Costs of Frailty Among Home Care Recipients With and Without Dementia in Ontario, Canada: A Cohort Study

Abstract Objective In this study, we investigated the incremental 1-year direct costs of health care associated with frailty among home care recipients in Ontario with and without […]

The Lifestyle Medicine Physician’s Case to Self-Insured Employers: A Business Model for Physicians, a Bargain for Companies

Abstract   A majority of Americans have health care insurance through their employers, the cost for which is rising at an alarming rate. Unfortunately, higher […]

Physician procedure volume and related adverse events after surgically induced abortion: a population-based cohort study

Abstract   BACKGROUND Induced abortion is a common procedure performed by physicians with varying degrees of clinical experience. We aimed to determine whether a physician’s […]

Home care nursing after elective vascular surgery: an opportunity to reduce emergency department visits and hospital readmission

Abstract Background Events occurring outside the hospital setting are underevaluated in surgical quality improvement initiatives and research. Objective To quantify regional variation in home care […]

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalemia in older adults: a population-based study

Abstract   Background Clinical guidelines caution against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use in older adults. The study objective was to quantify the 30-day risk of […]

Impactibility Model for Population Health Management in High-Cost Elderly Heart Failure Patients: A Capture Method Using the ACG System

Abstract The aim of the present study is to use the ACG (Adjusted Clinical Groups) System to create an impactibility model by identifying homogeneous clinical […]

Community palliative care initiatives to reduce end-of-life hospital utilization and in-hospital deaths: A population-based observational study evaluating two home care interventions

Abstract Context The end-of-life period is characterized by increased hospital utilization despite patients’ preferences to receive care and die at home. Objectives To evaluate the […]

Do Incentive Payments Reward The Wrong Providers? A Study Of Primary Care Reform In Ontario, Canada

ABSTRACT Primary care payment reform in the US and elsewhere usually involves capitation, often combined with bonuses and incentives. In capitation systems, providing care within […]

Using EMRALD to assess baseline body mass index among children living within and outside communities participating in the Ontario, Canada Healthy Kids Community Challenge

Abstract   Objectives The Healthy Kids Community Challenge is a large-scale, centrally-coordinated, community-based intervention in Ontario, Canada that promotes healthy behaviours towards improving healthy weights […]

Development of Alzheimer disease in old major depressive patients based upon their health status: A retrospective study in Taiwan

Abstract   This study is conducted to investigate the association between major depressive disorder and the subsequent development of Alzheimer disease (AD) in elderly patients […]

Trends in Providing Out-of-Office, Urgent After-Hours, and On-Call Care in British Columbia

Abstract   PURPOSE Providing care in alternative (non-office) locations and outside office hours are important elements of access and comprehensiveness of primary care. We examined […]

Association between allopurinol and cardiovascular outcomes and all‐cause mortality in diabetes: A retrospective, population‐based cohort study

Abstract Aim To assess the association between allopurinol and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in an allopurinol‐treated diabetes cohort. Materials and Methods We conducted a population‐based […]

An instrumental variable approach quantifies and confirms the duration of pre-transplant dialysis has negative impact on kidney transplant recipient survival

Abstract Dialysis prior to kidney transplantation may have a detrimental effect on post-transplant Outcomes. However, prior studies have not fully characterized the nature of this […]

Patient-reported symptoms following mastectomy alone or lumpectomy plus radiation for early stage breast cancer: a cohort study

Abstract Purpose Studies examining symptom differences between surgeries for breast cancer patients rarely incorporate the effects of adjuvant treatment choice. We sought to understand differences […]

Integrating Social and Behavioral Determinants of Health into Population Health Analytics: A Conceptual Framework and Suggested Road Map

Abstract There is growing recognition that social and behavioral risk factors impact population health outcomes. Interventions that target these risk factors can improve health outcomes. […]

Correlation between Potentially Inappropriate Medication and Alzheimer’s Disease among the Elderly

Abstract   Purpose This study is conducted to explore the association between potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) among the elderly. Methods We […]

Vulnerable And Less Vulnerable Women In High-Deductible Health Plans Experienced Delayed Breast Cancer Care

ABSTRACT The effects of high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) on breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among vulnerable populations are unknown. We examined time to first breast […]

Days at Home in the Last 6 Months of Life: A Patient-Determined Quality Indicator for Cancer Care

ABSTRACT   PURPOSE: Quality end-of-life care (EoLC) is a key aspect of oncology. Days at home in the last 6 months of life represents a […]

Exploring the use of machine learning for risk adjustment: A comparison of standard and penalized linear regression models in predicting health care costs in older adults

Abstract   Background Payers and providers still primarily use ordinary least squares (OLS) to estimate expected economic and clinical outcomes for risk adjustment purposes. Penalized […]

Multimorbidity Patterns in Patients with Back Pain: A Study of Patient Records at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden

Abstract In Primary Care, multimorbidity is the norm in most patients. A large part of these have pain disorders, very often related to the spine. […]

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