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Frailty instruments may improve prognostic estimates for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Few studies have evaluated and compared the performance of administrative database frailty instruments for patients undergoing TAVI. This study aimed to examine the performance of administrative database frailty instruments in predicting clinical outcomes and costs in patients who underwent TAVI.
We conducted a historical cohort study of 3,848 patients aged 66 yr or older who underwent a TAVI procedure in Ontario, Canada from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2018. We used the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) frailty indicator and the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) to assign frailty status. Outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality, one-year mortality, rehospitalization, and healthcare costs. We compared the performance of the two frailty instruments with that of a reference model that adjusted baseline covariates and procedural characteristics. Accuracy measures included c-statistics, Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), net reclassification index (NRI), bias, and accuracy of cost estimates.
A total of 863 patients (22.4%) were identified as frail using the Johns Hopkins ACG frailty indicator and 865 (22.5%) were identified as frail using the HFRS. Although agreement between the frailty instruments was fair (Kappa statistic = 0.322), each instrument classified different subgroups as frail. Both the Johns Hopkins ACG frailty indicator (rate ratio [RR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.20) and the HFRS (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.21) were significantly associated with increased one-year costs. Compared with the reference model, both the Johns Hopkins ACG frailty indicator and HFRS significantly improved NRI for one-year mortality (Johns Hopkins ACG frailty indicator: NRI, 0.160; P < 0.001; HFRS: NRI, 0.146; P = 0.001) and rehospitalization (Johns Hopkins ACG frailty indicator: NRI, 0.201; P < 0.001; HFRS: NRI, 0.141; P = 0.001). These improvements in NRI largely resulted from classification improvement among those who did not experience the event. With one-year mortality, there was a significant improvement in IDI (IDI, 0.003; P < 0.001) with the Johns Hopkins ACG frailty indicator. This improvement in performance resulted from an increase in the mean probability of the event among those with the event.
Preoperative frailty assessment may add some predictive value for TAVI outcomes. Use of administrative database frailty instruments may provide small but significant improvements in case-mix adjustment when profiling hospitals for certain outcomes.
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