Impact of Frailty on Hospital Outcomes Among Patients with Lymphoid Malignancies Receiving Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the United States

Published: June 7, 2022
Category: Bibliography
Authors: A Cristian, A Saxena, E Veledar, M Rubens, M Ruiz, P McGranaghan, R Tonse, V Ramamoorthy
Countries: USA
Language: English
Types: Outcomes
Settings: Hospital



Frailty could affect outcomes of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). This study sought to examine the effects of frailty on hospital outcomes among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and multiple myeloma (MM) who received aHSCT.

Materials and Methods

This study was a retrospective analysis of Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 2005 to 2014. Outcome variables were in-hospital mortality, prolonged length of stay and hospitalization cost. Frail patients were defined using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining diagnosis indicator.


There were 20,573 NHL, 8,974 HL, and 40,750 MM patients. Among them, 5.5% NHL, 3.8% HL, and 4.8% MM patients were frail. Among patients with NHL, there were significant associations between frailty and in-hospital mortality (Odds Ratio [OR], 4.04, 95% CI: 2.11-7.76), and prolonged length of stay (OR, 2.32, 95% CI: 1.56-3.46). Similarly, among HL, there were significant associations between frailty and in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.82, 95% CI: 1.43-2.76), and prolonged length of stay (OR, 1.55, 95% CI: 1.34-2.84). Likewise, for MM, there were significant associations between frailty and in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.28, 95% CI: 2.16-8.48), and prolonged length of stay (OR, 3.00, 95% CI: 2.00-4.51). These associations remained significant after stratifying by age and comorbidities. Significant differences were observed in hospitalization cost between frail and non-frail patients.


Among patients with lymphoid malignancies undergoing HSCT, frailty was associated with greater in-hospital mortality, longer length of stay, and higher hospitalization costs. Comprehensive health status assessments for identifying and managing frail patients in this population could improve patient outcomes.


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