Introduction: Active surveillance (AS) is a strategy for the management of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, few studies have assessed the uptake of AS at a population level and none of these were based on a Canadian population. Therefore, our objectives were to estimate the proportion of men being managed by AS in Ontario and to assess the factors associated with its uptake.
Methods: This was a retrospective, population-based study using administrative databases from the province of Ontario to identify men ≤75 years diagnosed with localized PCa between 2002 and 2010. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the proportion of men managed by AS, whereas mixed models were used to assess the factors associated with the uptake of AS.
Results: 45 691 men met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 18% were managed by AS. Over time, the rates of AS increased significantly from 11% to 21% (p<0.001). Older age, residing in an urban centre, being diagnosed in the later years of the study period, having a neighborhood income in the highest quintile, and being managed by urologists were all associated with greater odds of receiving AS.
Conclusions: There has been a steady increase in the uptake of AS between 2002 and 2010. However, only 18% of men diagnosed with localized PCa were managed by AS during the study period. The decisions to adopt AS were influenced by several individual and physician characteristics. The data suggest that there is significant opportunity for more widespread adoption of AS.
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