Risk Factors and Outcomes of Early Hospital Readmission in Canadian Kidney Transplant Recipients: A PopulationBased Multi-Center Cohort Study

Abstract

Background

Early hospital readmissions (EHRs) occur commonly in kidney transplant recipients. Conflicting evidence exists regarding risk factors and outcomes of EHRs.

Objective

To determine risk factors and outcomes associated with EHRs (ie, hospitalization within 30 days of discharge from transplant hospitalization) in kidney transplant recipients.

Design

Population-based cohort study using linked, administrative health care databases.

Setting

Ontario, Canada.

Patients

We included 5437 kidney transplant recipients from 2002 to 2015.

Measurements

Risk factors and outcomes associated with EHRs. We assessed donor, recipient, and transplant risk factors. We also assessed the following outcomes: total graft failure, death-censored graft failure, death with a functioning graft, mortality, and late hospital readmission.

Methods

We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of each risk factor and the odds of EHR. To examine the relationship between EHR status (yes vs no [reference]) and the outcomes associated with EHR (eg, total graft failure), we used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.

Results

In all, 1128 kidney transplant recipients (20.7%) experienced an EHR. We found the following risk factors were associated with an increased risk of EHR: older recipient age, lower income quintile, several comorbidities, longer hospitalization for initial kidney transplant, and older donor age. After adjusting for clinical characteristics, compared to recipients without an EHR, recipients with an EHR had an increased risk of total graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.65), death-censored graft failure (aHR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.94), death with graft function (aHR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.59), mortality (aHR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.63), and late hospital readmission in the first 0.5 years of follow-up (eg, 0 to <0.25 years: aHR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.85, 2.40).

Limitations

We were not able to identify which readmissions could have been preventable and there is a potential for residual confounding.

Conclusions

Results can be used to identify kidney transplant recipients at risk of EHR and emphasize the need for interventions to reduce the risk of EHRs.

early hospital readmission,kidney transplant recipient,risk factors,outcomes,graft failure

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