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J Am Board Fam Med 29:116-125.
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, State of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA
BACKGROUND: We present data on quality of care (QC) improvement in 35 of 45 National Quality Forum metrics reported annually by 52 primary care practices recognized as patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) that participated in the Maryland Multi-Payor Program from 2011 to 2013.
METHODS: We assigned QC metrics to (1) chronic, (2) preventive, and (3) mental health care domains. The study used a panel data design with no control group. Using longitudinal fixed-effects regressions, we modeled QC and case mix severity in a PCMH.
RESULTS: Overall, 35 of 45 quality metrics reported by 52 PCMHs demonstrated improvement over 3 years, and case mix severity did not affect the achievement of quality improvement. From 2011 to 2012, QC increased by 0.14 (P .01) for chronic, 0.15 (P .01) for preventive, and .34 (P .01) for mental health care domins; from 2012 to 2013 these domains increased by 0.03 (P = .06), 0.04 (P = .05), and 0.07 (P = .12), respectively. I univariate analyses, lower National Commission on Quality Assurance PCMH level was associated with higher QC for the mental health care domain, whereas case mix severity did not correlate with QC. In multivariate analyses, higher QC correlated with larger practices, greater proportion of older patients, and readmission visits. Rural practices had higher proportions of Medicaid patients, lower QC, and higher QC improvement in interaction analyses with time.
CONCLUSIONS: The gains in QC in the chronic disease domain, the preventive care domain, and, most significantly, the mental health care domain were observed over time regardless of patient case mix severity. QC improvement was generally not modified by practice characteristics, except for rurality.
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