Eur J Operational Res 240:235-244.
Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain; Basque Institute for Healthcare Innovation, Sondika, Spain; Osakidetza, Basque Health Service, Erandio, Spain
This paper uses a fully nonparametric approach to estimate efficiency measures for primary care units incorporating the effect of (exogenous) environmental factors. This methodology allows us to account for different types of variables (continuous and discrete) describing the main characteristics of patients served by those providers. In addition, we use an extension of this nonparametric approach to deal with the presence of undesirable outputs in data, represented by the rates of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive condition (ACSC). The empirical results show that all the exogenous variables considered have a significant and negative effect on efficiency estimates.
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