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Basque Institute for Healthcare Innovation, Barakaldo, Spain
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in the population diagnosed with diabetes type 2 and to test the hypothesis that the presence of depression in such cases was associated with a) worse glycaemic control, and b) higher healthcare costs.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis, from 1st September 2010 to 31st August 2011, among patients with type 2 diabetes aged 35 years and over in the Basque Country. It was identified how many of them had also depression. The database included administrative individual level information on age, sex, healthcare costs, other comorbidities, and values of glycaemic control (HbA1c). Deprivation index variable was used as socioeconomic measure and, to observe the coexistent pathologies, all the patients diagnoses were categorized by Adjusted Clinical Groups. We used a measure of association, a logistic and a linear regression for analysis.
RESULTS: 12.392 (9.8%) of type 2 diabetes patients were diagnosed with depression, being the prevalence 5.2% for males and 15.1% for females. This comorbidity was higher among the most deprived population. There was no association between the presence of depression and glycaemic control. We estimated that the comorbidity average cost per patient/year was 516€ higher than in patients with just type 2 diabetes (P < 0.001) adjusted by the other covariates.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the comorbidity was associated with significantly high healthcare costs compared to that of type 2 diabetes occurring alone, after adjusting by other illness. Thus, there is a need of more precise recognition, screening and monitoring of depression among diabetic population. Evidence-based treatment for depression should be included in type 2 diabetes clinical guidelines.
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